Book of Abstracts
11th IFOAM Scientific Conference
11-15 August 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
The reduction of forest areas in all climatic zones of the world cause changes of the weather, (droughts, inundation's and heavy thunderstorms), erosion and desertification. The accelerated cutting and destructive effect of polluting emissions resulted in the adaption of forestry methods. Recent forestry systems are based on a more natural forestry approach. The vanishing of forest biotopes caused by the global warming of the environment and the shifting climatic zones demonstrate the natural forestry models alone do not resolve this problem. An anticipative approach and dynamic measures are needed in order to be able to help forest communities.
The forest as an organism: This concept of Möller (1924) is based on diversity of tree-, shrub- and herbaceous flora. An active soil-life, remigration of fauna and revival of wells and streams are the first signs of the reoccurrence of an ecological balance. Hedges and fruit-trees introduced in the transition area of the forest promote this development.
Forest-tree nurseries: Forests with a low natural regeneration capacity and missing tree species require the establishment of local tree-nurseries under the protective cover of mature trees. Deep rooting trees as oak, spruce and larch should be sown directly in to open spaces of old forest biotopes.
Seeds - Origin: Healthy seed-trees have to be selected from registered tree-lots. The lower seed bearing regions of the tree-crown on the south side of solitary growing trees have to be selected to collect the seed material. This part of the tree produces seed which are more resistant against heat, fungi and other pests. In respect of the shifting climatic zones, trees from regions 200-400 km south and trees 200-400 m lower on mountain sites are suitable to replace trees in threatened regions.
Regeneration of tree-species: By applying selected seeding times, endangered tree species can be vitalized. With the aid of cosmic rhythms it is possible to reinforce germination, root formation and trunk development, as well as resistance against environmental influences caused by pollution. (G.W. Schmidt 1994).
Compost and Bio-dynamic perpetrates: With wood (chips and branches) and selectively collected forest litter, forest-compost can be made. This compost is used for the development of forest plant-material in nurseries, weakened forest lots and during plantation of forest trees on site. With the use of preparations of medicinal herbs, it is possible to stimulate the soil-life (fauna and flora). Bio-dynamic sprays enhance the first growth in spring and help the ripening process in autumn. The use of chemical fertilizers should be avoided in a forest biotope.
Andrae, S. (1995): Positionspapier zur Waldregeneration.
Schmidt, G.W. (1992): Baumregeneration und Landschaftswiederaufbau.